The Concept of Heap and Its Usage in Embedded Systems

Overview A typical memory representation of a C language program consists of following segments:  Code (Text) segment - contains the program code (machine instructions)  Data segment - contains the static data (global/static variables)  Stack segment (see our article on the topic The Concept of Stack and Its Usage in Microprocessors)  Heap segment Fig.1 Memory Segments

2019-05-18T23:23:52+03:00By |Categories: Embedded Systems|Tags: |2 Comments

The Concept of Stack and Its Usage in Microprocessors

Overview In general we can describe the stack as a temporary storage for data.  The access to data in the stack is organized as Last In First Out (LIFO), which means that the last data stored in the stack is the first than can be retrieved and the first data stored in the stack is the last

2019-05-18T23:28:00+03:00By |Categories: Embedded Systems|Tags: |1 Comment

Fixed Point Numbers in Digital Systems

Overview Fixed point numbers are used for representing fractional numbers in digital systems. The term "Fixed-Point" refers to fact that the position of the binary point is always at the same place. The binary point separates the integer and the fractional part of a number (the same as the decimal point in the decimal system). An N-bit binary

2019-05-18T23:28:43+03:00By |Categories: Digital Logic|Tags: |0 Comments

Floating Point Numbers in Digital Systems

Overview Floating point is a way of  representing rational numbers in digital systems. The floating point numbers are represented  in a manner similar to scientific notation, where a number is represented as normalized significand and a multiplier: c x be  Scientific notation c - normalized significand  (the absolute value of c is between 1 and 10 e.g

2019-05-18T23:29:57+03:00By |Categories: Digital Logic|Tags: |1 Comment

Phase Locked Loop (PLL) and Delay Locked Loop (DLL) Basics

Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) A PLL is a negative feedback system where an oscillator-generated signal is phase and frequency locked to a reference signal. Typical applications of PLL are: Frequency Synthesis (e.g. generating a 1 GHz clock from a 50 MHz reference) Clock Deskewing (e.g. phase-aligning an internal clock to an output clock to external device) Extracting

2019-04-07T13:33:32+03:00By |Categories: Explained Simply|Tags: , , |1 Comment

Application of MODBUS Protocol in Microcontrollers

MODBUS© Protocol is a messaging structure, widely used for master-slave communication between devices. Only one master (at the same time) is connected to the bus, and one or several (247 maximum number) slaves nodes are also connected to the same serial bus. When a MODBUS master wants information from a device, the master sends a message that contains

2019-05-18T23:33:17+03:00By |Categories: Embedded Systems|Tags: |1 Comment

Frequency Measurement Using Counters

Frequency can be measured using a simple synchronous counter that is counting the number of edges of an input signal over a defined period of time. This period of time is usually referred to as gate time. Fig. 1 Frequency measurement block diagram During the gate time the counter is enabled and incoming pulses

2019-05-18T23:34:58+03:00By |Categories: Digital Logic|Tags: |0 Comments

Overflow in Digital Systems

Each integer number used in digital hardware is represented in binary form using a fixed number of bits (memory space for storing the number).  Due to the fixed number of bits, there is a limited number of unique values that can be represented. Fig. 1. Storage size and unique values The relation between the range and

2019-05-18T23:35:17+03:00By |Categories: Digital Logic|Tags: |0 Comments
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