/Tag: microcontrollers

The Concept of Stack and Its Usage in Microprocessors

Overview In general we can describe the stack as a temporary storage for data.  The access to data in the stack is organized as Last In First Out (LIFO), which means that the last data stored in the stack is the first than can be retrieved and the first data stored in the stack is the last [...]

By |2017-03-18T19:39:06+00:00March 18th, 2017|Categories: Explained Simply|Tags: , |1 Comment

Fixed Point Numbers in Digital Systems

Overview Fixed point numbers are used for representing fractional numbers in digital systems. The term "Fixed-Point" refers to fact that the position of the binary point is always at the same place. The binary point separates the integer and the fractional part of a number (the same as the decimal point in the decimal system). An N-bit binary [...]

By |2017-02-09T07:14:52+00:00February 8th, 2017|Categories: Explained Simply|Tags: , |0 Comments

Floating Point Numbers in Digital Systems

Overview Floating point is a way of  representing rational numbers in digital systems. The floating point numbers are represented  in a manner similar to scientific notation, where a number is represented as normalized significand and a multiplier: c x be  Scientific notation c - normalized significand  (the absolute value of c is between 1 and 10 e.g [...]

By |2017-01-28T22:48:32+00:00January 14th, 2017|Categories: Explained Simply|Tags: |0 Comments

Phase Locked Loop (PLL) and Delay Locked Loop (DLL) Basics

Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) A PLL is a negative feedback system where an oscillator-generated signal is phase and frequency locked to a reference signal. Typical applications of PLL are: Frequency Synthesis (e.g. generating a 1 GHz clock from a 50 MHz reference) Clock Deskewing (e.g. phase-aligning an internal clock to an output clock to external device) Extracting [...]

By |2016-08-31T07:18:29+00:00July 28th, 2016|Categories: Explained Simply|Tags: , , |0 Comments

Application of MODBUS Protocol in Microcontrollers

MODBUS© Protocol is a messaging structure, widely used for master-slave communication between devices. Only one master (at the same time) is connected to the bus, and one or several (247 maximum number) slaves nodes are also connected to the same serial bus. When a MODBUS master wants information from a device, the master sends a message that contains [...]

Frequency Measurement Using Counters

Frequency can be measured using a simple synchronous counter that is counting the number of edges of an input signal over a defined period of time. This period of time is usually referred to as gate time. Fig. 1 Frequency measurement block diagram During the gate time the counter is enabled and incoming pulses [...]

By |2016-08-10T06:54:20+00:00July 24th, 2016|Categories: Explained Simply|Tags: , |0 Comments
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