IPv4 Header Explained

In this article, we will explain the header section of an IPv4 packet. The IPv4 header has a variable length of 20-60 bytes, depending on the IP options present. It consists of 14 fields, of which 13 are mandatory. IPv4 Header Format Compared To IPv6 Header Let's take a look at each field individually: Version

2020-05-10T21:24:37+03:00By |Categories: Explained Simply|0 Comments

IPv4 vs. IPv6

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a unique numerical identifier used for communication between devices connected to a computer network. It is used for identification and location addressing. To send data from one computer to another, data packets must travel across the network containing the IP addresses of both devices. In 1983, IPv4 was

2020-05-13T23:58:53+03:00By |Categories: Explained Simply|0 Comments

Peripheral Access Layer for Microcontrollers

The peripheral access layer is a layer of the firmware that provides access to the registers of a microcontroller's peripheral units. It has to be easy to use, well structured, and efficient. This layer is part of the software packages every microcontroller vendor provides for free with their Software Development Kits (SDK) and Integrated Development

2020-04-26T14:42:59+03:00By |Categories: Embedded Systems|Tags: , |0 Comments

Direct Memory Access (DMA) in Embedded Systems

Direct Memory Access (DMA) is a process of transferring data from one memory location to another without the direct involvement of the processor (CPU). The main benefit of using DMA is more efficient data movement in the embedded system. Principle of Operation There are many different types of DMA implementations, some of them for very

2020-04-15T20:59:18+03:00By |Categories: Embedded Systems|Tags: |0 Comments

Rust error[E0554]

This Rust error (E0554) is simple and it occurs when we try to install/build projects with a stable version of Rust. The first step is to run the following command: rustup install nightly After that, you can run your cargo command. For example: cargo +nightly build If your encounter the error when you install a

2020-04-05T23:55:20+03:00By |Categories: How To|0 Comments

Node.js Config Files

Sometimes we need to create and use configuration files. One of the ways to create and use configurations is by using a config module. The first step is to install it using the following command: npm install config When we do this we have to create a directory with a name "config"(directory name/path can be

2020-03-29T15:39:40+03:00By |Categories: How To|0 Comments

RTOS: Mutex and Semaphore Basics

Designing an embedded system that employs a real-time operating system (RTOS) with multitasking behavior means that there will be resources that must be shared between the tasks. These shared resources (e.g peripheral modules, data structures, communication interfaces, etc.) by their nature do not support multiple concurrent accesses. Accessing them without any rules in place may

2020-03-16T06:18:21+02:00By |Categories: Embedded Systems|Tags: , , |0 Comments
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