KiCad – Create Template

KiCad templates are used to create projects with common settings. Templates can contain everything you need for a new project, for example, table and graphic formating, board outlines, schematic elements, etc. You can create a KiCad template with the following easy steps: Create a project with the settings you needAdd a folder named meta in

2020-07-26T19:33:56+03:00By |Categories: How To|0 Comments

Aligned and Unaligned Memory Access

Unaligned memory access is the access of data with a size of N number of bytes from an address that is not evenly divisible by the number of bytes N. If the address is evenly divisible by N, we have aligned memory access. We can express this as Address/N, where Address is the memory address

2020-07-19T16:56:39+03:00By |Categories: Embedded Systems|Tags: , |0 Comments

KiCad Files – Useful Information

In this post, I will try to provide you with useful KiCad files information. In the folder containing a KiCad project, you can find various types of files ranging from libraries, schematics to generated output files. Extension / NameDescription.proThis is the project file and it contains parameters and configurations..sch, .kicad_schSchematic file. (The new format is

2020-07-05T21:27:16+03:00By |Categories: Explained Simply|0 Comments

KiCad – Annotate Schematic Elements

When you create a schematic, you need to annotate it. If you have a few elements, it is easy to do it manually. For larger schematics, it is better to use automatic annotation. KiCad provides this capability using an easy to use interface. Tools menu Select the "Tools" menuClick "Annotate Schematic..."When the window is opened

2020-06-21T16:28:59+03:00By |Categories: How To|0 Comments

IPv6 Header Explained

The IPv6 is the latest version of the Internet Protocol. Its header is subdivided into a mandatory fixed header and optional extension headers. The fixed header has 8 fields and fixed size of 40 bytes, while all extension headers are multiple of 8 octets in size. To meet this requirement, some extension headers require internal

2020-06-14T13:31:40+03:00By |Categories: Explained Simply|0 Comments

Little-Endian vs Big-Endian in Embedded Systems

To better understand the concept of little-endian and big-endian formats we first have to look at how memory is accessed. The memory space of a microprocessor is expected to be byte-addressable. When a CPU has a 32-bit address bus this means that it can access a total of 232 addresses each with a size of

2020-06-07T21:07:09+03:00By |Categories: Embedded Systems|Tags: , |0 Comments

Prusa i3 MK3S Filament Sensor rev. 0.4 and FW 3.9.0

In the latest firmware release (at the time of writing this article) Prusa Research added a feature for filament sensor recognition (available for i3 MK3S only). Essentially the printer can tell when then filament sensor is disconnected and can interrupt the print and wait for user action. More details can be found in their GitHub

2020-05-31T12:47:21+03:00By |Categories: Embedded Systems, How To|Tags: |0 Comments

Prusa i3 MK3/MK3S Backlight Control in FW 3.9.0

Prusa has introduced a new firmware version for their line of 3D printers. One of the cool new features is the capability to control the display's backlight intensity from the settings menu. There is a big chance that this option will not work if your 3D printer was produced early 2019 or before. The reason is

2020-05-26T17:55:12+03:00By |Categories: Embedded Systems, How To|Tags: |0 Comments

Communication Between RTOS Tasks

Real-time operating systems (RTOS) allows us to develop complex embedded systems. By using self-contained tasks (threads) each with their own context we can implement programs with multitasking behavior using a single CPU. Passing information between these tasks (inter-task communication) is an important aspect when designing an embedded application using an RTOS. We can say that

2020-05-19T19:02:24+03:00By |Categories: Embedded Systems|Tags: , |0 Comments

IPv4 Header Explained

In this article, we will explain the header section of an IPv4 packet. The IPv4 header has a variable length of 20-60 bytes, depending on the IP options present. It consists of 14 fields, of which 13 are mandatory. IPv4 Header Format Compared To IPv6 Header Let's take a look at each field individually: Version

2020-05-10T21:24:37+03:00By |Categories: Explained Simply|0 Comments
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