When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction on the first body.
Newton’s Third Law, Isaac Newton


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Reference vs Value Types in C#

Memory layout for value types Variables in C# can be classified into two types - reference types and value types. If we know the characteristics of each of them it will be easy for us to use them and optimize the programs we write. Value types When a variable is

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OSI Session Layer

The fifth layer of the OSI model is the session layer. It controls the connections between different systems by tracking the dialogs between computers, which are called sessions. A session is a communication channel that gets established between two hosts for the exchange of information for a limited period. It

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Embedded Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) Basics

Embedded systems are microcontroller-based systems that are designed to perform specific functions such as reading sensor data, responding to external events, communicating with other systems, controlling processes, etc. The tricky part is to make the distinction of what exactly qualifies such a system as real-time. Aren't all embedded systems operating

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OSI Transport Layer

The fourth layer of the OSI model is the transport layer. Its purpose is to provide secure communication and transparent transmission of the data flow. The data which is received from the session layer is divided into small data units called segments. Each segment contains the sender and receiver port

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OSI Network Layer

The third layer of the OSI model is the network layer. It is the first completely independent of the physical environment level, allowing two or more nodes to retransmit data no matter what physical network they are connected to. This permits different networks to be interconnected. The network layer finds

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OSI Data Link Layer

The second layer of the OSI model is the data link layer. It provides reliable and efficient communication between two or more devices on a local network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN) by using a unique identification of each device. It also corrects errors that may occur in

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